Division Level+Ed Tech = A mixed-bag.

Greetings, part 1 of this week’s blog asked us to look at the leadership principles present within Sun West’s and Regina Catholic’s approach to ed-tech.

If we’re basing these off of the leadership principles covered in unit 2 of the course, then there are a few present in both approaches.  For starters, both divisions developed a “sense of responsibility in their workers” and had their employees “set the example”.  The fact that the “Connected Educators” in Regina Catholic were willing to take summer PD shows that they were passionate about the project.  In addition, these teachers were also willing to be mentors to future members. They took responsibility for the success, both present, and future of the project.  

Teachers in both divisions also spent a lot of time seeking self-improvement and training as a team.  This was accomplished in Regina Catholic partly through summertime PD. Teachers often talk the talk when it comes to self-improvement but these teachers actually went out and did it.  Not only that but they did it during a teacher’s most precious time of the year!

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The thought of giving up a single day of summer break is enough to make most teachers cringe.

Teachers in Sun West meanwhile spent ample time training as a team.  It was mentioned by Guy Tetrault around the 14-minute mark of his podcast interview that “there are pockets of innovation everywhere and that “every school system has teachers that are doing extraordinary things but the problem is that they’re only in pockets”.  He went on to say that what Sun West wanted to do was to bring those pockets together by scaling out (getting pockets of excellence working collaboratively together so that it goes around to all of the schools in the division) and by scaling up (taking it through the entire division and ensuring that everyone is on board and going forward).  It was obvious through his interview that he understood the importance of teacher collaboration – something that I wish we had more time for. The best PD sessions that I’ve attended have been the ones where the focus is on the exchanging of resources and ideas. Unfortunately, the time allotted for these types of sessions has been fairly limited.

In addition, all of this was accomplished through a “creative leadership style”.  Bart Cote mentioned that they (Regina Catholic) needed to find opportunities within the existing system to make change.  It’s all well and good to hide behind the excuse of “we don’t have the necessary $$$ or time to accomplish this” but these people actually went out and made change happen within the parameters of the existing system. This just goes to show that, even though a lack of resources can make change difficult, it’s not impossible.

 

Part II:

For part 2 of this week’s blog, I wanted to look at the following image and explain why it shows what is wrong with ed tech at the division level.

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True story:  This image once made me feel bad about myself.

The first time I saw this picture was actually a few years in poster form in our computer lab at Martin.  I actually recall being a bit disheartened when I first glanced at it because I felt like I was largely giving the  “wrong answers”. Sure, I was integrating tech but it seemed like a lot of what I was doing was integrating tech just for the sake of integrating tech.  Now, I don’t think that that’s necessarily a bad thing. Part of developing a “21st-century skillset” is being able to create many of things listed underneath “wrong answers” and, as was mentioned via the swimming pool metaphor (see below) in the Bart Cote interview, we can’t spend ALL of our time in the deep-end (redefinition) because we’ll drown in technology.

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Where I see my school division (Regina Public) having success is in the Substitution and Augmentation stages of the SAMR model.  We have access to a wide variety of technology that, depending on the situation can potentially act as a “direct substitute with functional improvement”.  What the division isn’t doing as well is actually taking the tech that we have and helping teachers take it to that modification/redefinition stage that would allow us to provide the “right answers” that are listed in the poster above.  

The situation in Regina Public seems quite similar to the one that existed in Sun West prior to their technology shift – there are teachers that are doing extraordinary things but the problem is that they’re only in pockets.  At the moment, there doesn’t appear to be a concerted effort to get the most out of the tech that we have access to nor have there been many meaningful conversations surrounding the fundamental purpose of ed tech. Like Krista said in her blog, “focus on Edtech (at the school division level) has fallen to the bottom of the list (of division priorities)”.  As a result, it has been left to the teachers to figure out and maybe, if they’re lucky, they’ll stumble across something truly innovative.  Once again, all one has to do is visit the “technology in teaching and learning” section on the Regina Public website to see what the lack of a coordinated strategy looks like. 

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What does all of this even mean? Well, clicking on each of these boxes takes you to the same link – a brief discussion surrounding Regina Public’s shared vision in technology.

Until more time is spent having discussions surrounding ed tech, most teachers are going to have the “wrong answers” with a few pockets of teachers having the “right answers”.

 

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All aboard the ed-tech “train”

Technology and education.  Where to even begin?

The teaching profession, like education, has continued to evolve but how much should their futures be intertwined?

  • Should technology be further incorporated into the classroom?
  • Is it doing more harm than good?
  • Are staff well equipped to handle current technological innovations?
  • When will the current generation of ed tech be obsolete?
  • Is it obsolete already?
  • What should we do about cell phones?
  • How do we make sure that schools are on a level playing field when it comes to technology?
  • How is it going to be funded?
  • What policies need to be developed to ensure responsible usage?
  • What about the dangers of screen time?

Even with a large number of questions surrounding tech in the classroom, it’s safe to assume that ed tech is here to stay.  Teachers are going to be expected to incorporate technology into their lessons in order to provide students with the apparent “21st-century skills” that they will need in the future.  This, however, will be difficult to achieve if teachers aren’t properly trained with the very technology that they’re expected to use in class – and that right there represents one of the greatest (and often overlooked) challenges of incorporating tech in the classroom.  Teachers aren’t properly trained or even consulted when it comes to ed-tech and it turns out, this is not a recent phenomenon. The 1986 article “Teachers and Machines” laments that

School boards and superintendents initiated efforts for using the new technology; only later were teachers involved in discussions of how to install it into the classroom.  Reformers had an itch and they got teachers to scratch it for them. This pattern of bringing teachers in at the tail end of the hoopla surrounding an innovation targeted upon altering classroom practice was common in school organizations” (p. 36).

Sounds familiar.

Presently, dwindling PD days (which are often clumped together right at the start of the school year when most teachers would rather spend their time prepping their classes for the year) and budget cuts mean that there has not been the time or resources dedicated to effectively train teachers with the tech that they’re expected to use.

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“Using tech to enhance student learning is a great idea.  You should train yourself and do it!”

The “dramatis personae” in this situation are teachers, administrators (at both the school and board office level), students, parents.

The props? Devices such as smartphones, tablets, and computers.  Programs used almost daily such as PowerSchool/Parent Portal, Gradebook, Google Suite, and My BluePrint.  There is also an assortment of assistive technologies such as Google Read/Write and assessment technologies (Kahoot, Socrative) that many teachers don’t even know exist.

The scenes? The classroom, the homes of both teachers and students, and division offices.

The conflict? Finding the time to properly train teachers (and parents/students) with the technology that they’re expected to use on a regular basis while also exposing teachers to new, potentially beneficial technologies.  This, of course, has to be accomplished in a climate of dwindling PD time and teacher prep time that is constantly under threat (used for meetings, data entry, and other tasks as opposed to PREP and marking). Furthermore, teachers have already spent ample time dealing with various initiatives over the years and might be suffering from increased cynicism as a result of “repetitive change syndrome”.  In addition, many parents aren’t familiar with the tech that is being used in the classroom.

What Adam Williams and I are suggesting is a module based program that encourages teachers to take ownership of the technology situation in the school (note: we will be working on our final project together but at the moment, our roadmaps are slightly different).  For now, my preliminary plan is outlined below:

The first module must occur at the start of the school year during one of the five professional development days prior to the arrival of students and will be led by an “expert” on the technology (either from the board office or, more likely by an internal “tech team”).  The focus here needs to be solely on the mandatory programs such as Parent Portal/Power Teacher, Gradebook, and My BluePrint. Time then needs to be alotted either at the school’s open house, or the first parent-teacher conference for staff to go through these essential programs with parents/students in order to ensure that they’re able to access them and provide them with a brief tutorial regarding their use.

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Parent Portal is an integral part of the school system.  Unfortunately, many parents are either unaware of its existence or are unable to log-on.

From there, the modules can focus on Google Suite, Read/Write, and other potentially valuable programs/technologies.  Each of these modules would once again be led by an expert or the internal “tech-team” that trains the staff during a PD session (ideally during a PD day in October/November).  The expectation will then be that the amount of staff comfortable with that technology has increased to the point where certain staff members can be relied upon to go into other classrooms and run a student-centred module.

readwrite
Read&Write is a program that helps students with, you guessed it, reading and writing.  The program has several helpful features, many of which are untapped by teachers (and by extension, students).

The final module (for the school year) would take place in the form of a “community of practice”.  During one of the professional development days in the spring, staff members that are comfortable with a particular technology or program will lead a session for others that are interested in learning more about that particular program.  This module is particularly appealing because it will provide staff members with the opportunity to learn about programs that could be of specific value to the classes they teach (for example if there is a program that caters specifically to math teachers or English Language arts, etc.).

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I learned about this language app from a community of practice and have recently incorporated it into my teaching.

Finally, all of this must be done in conjunction with tech workshops.  The expectation here would be that the school provides a tech workshop for parents following each of the modules.  These workshops would take place outside of regular school hours with additional workshops being added if the demand is there (this will likely prove to be a hard sell to teachers whose lives are already extremely busy).  The school’s website also needs to be regularly updated with helpful links to tutorials and videos regarding the various technologies that are used in the school.

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Updating the school’s website to include links and tutorials to the technology that is being used in the school seems like a no-brainer.

This plan is by no means perfect and there are countless other technology related issues (see: introductory paragraph).  That said, with limited resources (both financial and in terms of time) this plan at least provides teachers AND parents with the opportunity to learn about the essential day-to-day programs (Parent Portal, Gradebook, My BluePrint) while also being exposed to other potentially beneficial programs.

Tech is here to say.  As a result, it is paramount that the affected parties be well-versed in its use.

Leadership Disruption?

This week’s second blog post is going to look at different quotes from 5 different readings regarding disruptive leadership.  For the first reading, I’ve cheated and have chosen three quotes that work together to disrupt my view of consensus.

Reading #1 – Leadership, more or less.

“For example, ingratiating behaviour by followers, in which they exaggerate how much they agree with the opinions of leaders, contributes to exaggerated self-belief, narcissism and the adoption of ultimately destructive forms of leader action” (p.13).

“this casts leaders as the subjects of influence attempts by others, as well as agents who make things happen to other people” (p.13).

“Overt consensus is likely to mark covert dissent, since it is unlikely that followers will ever feel completely free to express the full range of their disagreements with leaders. The illusion of such consensus can therefore be held to denote leadership practices that are insufficiently sensitive to follower feedback, rather than a rational endpoint of healthy information exchange processes (p. 20).”

I alluded to the benefits of consensus in my previous blog post.  While I still believe that democratic and consensus leadership can work depending on the situation, I didn’t spend much time thinking about the consequences.  I mean, come on! A leader that takes everyone’s opinion into consideration and wants everyone to be happy? What’s not to like?!

A lot, actually.  What consensus can do is breed a series of “yes-men/women” that are too afraid to truly speak their minds because they have leadership aspirations of their own and don’t want to upset the proverbial apple cart.  In turn, the leader, seeing that he/she has the unrelenting love and respect of his/her followers continues to operate unchecked. Yeah, it’s easy to see why that’s a problem.

yesman
Armies of yes-men can be an unintended consequence of consensus.

Reading #2 – Critical and alternative approaches to leadership learning and development

“Jackie Ford and colleagues highlight the performative nature of leadership literature and indeed the leadership learning and development discourse. The dominant writing on leadership and the hype around leadership development in contemporary organisations has an influence on how leadership identities are constructed, this being largely masculine, aggressive and controlling self-reliant ‘perfect beings’. Managers are therefore encouraged to ‘become’ leaders and adopt an identity prescribed by the literature and by leadership development programmes. This emerging critical strand of the leadership literature therefore suggests that leadership development and learning should avoid presenting leadership as a fixed identity or role, instead encouraging an awareness of multiple roles (leader, follower and both)” (p.6).

I chose the above quote for a couple of reasons.  The first because the dominant view of leadership has historically been that leaders are “masculine, aggressive/controlling self-reliant perfect beings”.  This is interesting to me because, like Stephen, one of my guilty pleasures is watching sports (note: you can probably take the “guilty” out of it, I spend an inordinate amount of time consuming sports media).  The position of quarterback in football matches this description to a tee. In order to be a successful quarterback, the belief is that, in addition to talent, you need to have the necessary leadership skills required to not only command the respect of a huddle but also the entire locker room.  Without those leadership skills, you’re doomed to fail. Look up any successful quarterback. In addition to their talent, it’s almost guaranteed that their skills as “leaders of men” will be touted.

brady

The second part of the quote is also interesting because it points out that we should avoid presenting leadership as a fixed identity.   As we discovered in the review of leadership theories, there are many different leadership styles which can all be effective depending on the situation.  Leaders shouldn’t be married to one specific style because doing so neglects the benefits of the others and potentially indicates a lack of situational awareness.  Also, encouraging awareness of multiple roles (leader, follower, and both) is hugely important and is often forgotten by many school administrators. A pet-peeve of mine has always been school administrators that taught for a couple of years, got their required Master’s degree and then almost immediately became a principal (or vice-principal).  How much awareness of the role of “follower” do these people possibly have?

Reading #3 – Avoiding Repetitive Change Syndrome  

“Repetitive change syndrome harms a company’s capacity to make further changes. That is, for every change initiative added, another one slows down or disappears. In extreme cases, older initiatives aren’t completed and are eventually forgotten. Moreover, people begin faking it, acting as if they are cooperating with a new initiative while secretly carrying on business as usual, a subtle form of sabotage” (p.3).

I believe that education, more than any profession, suffers from “repetitive change syndrome”.  I can’t even come close to remembering the various initiatives and buzzwords that have come and gone in my 12 years as a teacher.  Professional learning communities, CELS, differentiated instruction, adaptive dimension, integration of technology, team-teaching, schools without walls, scaffolding, SMART goals, etc. I’m not saying that these things are bad, they’re not.  It just seems like every year there is a new fad for teachers to adopt.

This shouldn’t come as a surprise, however.  Change is THE constant in education.

  • When the government changes? Change in priorities and funding.  
  • Cabinet shuffle leading to a different education minister? Again, change in priorities as the new minister seeks to put his/her stamp on the new gig.
  • New director of education? More change.
  • New superintendent? Change.
  • New principal (which seems to happen every 2 years)? Change.

It’s no wonder why education is inundated with constant change and it’s no wonder why new initiatives (regardless of how good their intentions may be) are often greeted with cynicism.

Reading #4: The stupidity paradox: The power and pitfalls of functional stupidity at work

“Today, many schools have fallen victim to image obsession. In the past, teachers had relatively high levels of autonomy. They concentrated their energies on educating students. But as a result of constant educational reforms, schools are now more and more focused on various auditing exercises” (p. 11).

“What the school looks like seems to count for more than the actual education. The people who run schools end up allotting less time and resources to teaching and learning, and more to image-polishing exercises. Schools become machines for persuading others that children are getting a good education, rather than institutions for educating children” (p. 11).

Both of these quotes pair quite nicely with the pitfalls of repetitive change that were discussed in the previous reading.  As a result of constant educational reforms, the responsibilities of the teacher have expanded over the years as we attempt to justify our worth to the public (education, after all, is a public expense).  In addition, an administrator’s responsibilities have also changed. I’m reminded of an article I read for a previous class entitled “The Future of the Principalship”. In this article, several changes to a principals job throughout the years were highlighted:

  1. Increased workload
  2. Increased complexity of the job
  3. Increased focus on instructional leadership
  4. Increased focus on transformational leadership
  5. Development of new skills
  6. Increased focus on external relationships
  7. Changes in leadership approach
  8. Changes in autonomy
  9. Increased levels of stress
  10. Decreased family/personal time

Natrually, all of these changes have had an impact on the quality of meaningful work that principals are able to do within a school.

Reading #5 – Cross-Cultural Understandings of Leadership.

Leaders are responsible for others.  Western leadership accepts this as one of its chargers – to be responsible for followers or fellow workers or subordinates.”

“Trust is one of the factors that has concerned leaders in western leadership.”

“Perhaps one of the precursors to trust is a willingness not to interfere in how others construct their understandings.  Interference implies lack of trust. Non-interference may suggest trust (p.14/15)”.

Now, to quote myself from my previous blog post:

“I also dislike micromanaging and being micromanaged.  If I feel like I’m being micromanaged that gives me the impression that I’m not trusted to do the job.  As long as I’ve been provided with the necessary training and resources to accomplish the job, I’d like to be allowed to do it without having someone constantly looking over my shoulder.  Trust is key.”

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Frequent micromanaging = lack of trust

There is a difference between micromanaging and providing support.  It’s important for leaders to know the difference if they hope to foster a healthy work environment.

Time and Place

Greetings,

The first of this week’s blog prompts asked us to look at our personality and discuss the impact it has had on our leadership style.  

For starters, if you were to ask someone to describe my personality in one word, chances are they would respond with “sarcastic”.  It is true, I am unabashedly sarcastic. There have been times in my life where I’ve flirted with the idea of attempting to be less sarcastic but those moments have been fleeting.  I am sarcastic with my wife, my friends, and at work.  In addition to this, I also self-deprecating and attempt to see the humour in most situations.

Side note: the concept of time & place is something that I’ve learned throughout the years, I am fully capable of being serious and turning off the sarcasm when the situation warrants it.  Or so I’d like to think.

sarcasm
This poster can be found on my desk at work.

That said, I’d like to think that there is more to my personality than sarcasm. Respecting the opinions of others is something I’ve always valued both at home (something as “simple” as choosing a movie/restaurant) and at work (developing a plan for success for at-risk students, planning events, etc.).  I also dislike micromanaging and being micromanaged. If I feel like I’m being micromanaged that gives me the impression that I’m not trusted to do the job. As long as I’ve been provided with the necessary training and resources to accomplish the job, I’d like to be allowed to do it without having someone constantly looking over my shoulder.  Trust is key.

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Micromanaging.  Not a fan.

I’ve had a few experiences throughout my life that have shaped these traits.  Growing up, I was big into music and this is where my disdain for being micromanaged can be traced to.  While I appreciated the one-on-one nature of private lessons with an instructor, I always preferred to practice at home, in the basement, preferably with no one around.  If I wasn’t sure how to attack a certain passage or what technique I was supposed to use, that’s where the private lessons were beneficial. Otherwise, I preferred to attempt to perfect whatever song on my own.  That same sort of situation often plays out today if I’m thrust into a leadership role. Help provide people with the skills needed to accomplish the task and then trust in their ability to complete said task.

Travelling has also helped shape my leadership philosophy.  I’ve been fortunate enough to have travelled fairly extensively over the years and this is where I learned to value both consensus and the opinions of others.  When travelling with a group (both big/small, often with people whom I’ve never met that come from different countries) it’s important to attempt to take everyone’s opinion into consideration when deciding on things such as meals, transportation, potential activities, etc.  Doing so helps to make for a much more harmonious trip for all involved.  In addition, Forbes identified 10-ways in which travel can benefit leaders.

After reading the first section of this week’s readings, there were a couple of leadership approaches that stood out –  the laissez-faire leadership style and the democratic/participatory style. Based on what I’ve written about thus far, this should not come as a surprise.  Given my disdain for micromanaging, the laissez-faire style stood out. While laissez-faire sort of implies a bit of laziness on the part of the leader, it doesn’t have to be that way.

“They (laissez-faire leaders) provide teams with resources and advice if needed, but otherwise do not get involved. This leadership style can be effective if the leader monitors performance and gives feedback to team members regularly.  Team members tend to have high job satisfaction and are productive because they are more involved”.

That last sentence is key.  This leadership style can work (depending on the situation, of course) if the leader actually pays attention to the performance of others AND provides the necessary assistance when required.  This style will not work if the leader simply washes his/her hands of the situation.

Meanwhile, the democratic/participatory style speaks to the value I place in other’s opinions.  

“Democratic leaders make the final decisions, but include team members in the decision-making process. They encourage creativity, and team members are often highly engaged in projects and decisions.  Team members tend to have high job satisfaction and are productive because they are more involved.”

Once again, that last sentence is key.  By involving others in the decision-making process, quality team building is taking place which in turn will benefit both the project and the long-term relationships of the people involved.

just-because-someones-opinion-is-different-than-your-own-it-does-not-mean-they-are-wrong.

Every leadership style outlined in this week’s readings has strengths and weaknesses.  Sometimes a democratic approach isn’t going to work because time is of the essence. Meanwhile, the “laissez-faire’ approach might not work if the skills of the group members aren’t quite up to par. An effective leader makes use of an array of leadership styles and uses them based on the situation.  

Time and place.

Square pegs, round holes

Hey! Welcome to round 2 of my blog! I first started blogging for university purposes last semester in EC&I 833.  Although I was a bit skeptical at first (and frequently got frustrated with WordPress), I eventually grew to enjoy blogging so I am glad that this will once again be my primary method of interaction throughout a course.

For our first blog of the semester, we’ve been asked to look at ways in which we’ve seen schools used as agents for the maintenance of existing unjust power structures in society.  Turns out, the list is long. For starters, one only has to look at the curriculum and its priorities. As Kirsten and Stephen mentioned throughout their lecture, there is an inordinate amount of attention paid to the 4 r’s – readin’, ‘ritin’, ‘rithmetic and regurgitation.  Meanwhile, physical education and the arts often take a backseat. Out of curiosity I went back in time to my days as an elementary school itinerant and checked out my timetable from the 2010/11 school year in order to see how much time was allotted to certain classes. Since I was merely an itinerant, I was assigned non-core classes such as physical education, core French, music, as well as Social Studies.  The time allotted to each is as follows:

Physical Education:  Primary classes (K-5) = 90 minutes/week.  Senior Classes = 120-150.

Core French:  Primary classes = 60 minutes/week.  Senior classes = 90 minutes.

Music:  Primary classes = 60 minutes/week.  Senior classes = 90 minutes.

Social Studies:  Primary classes = 90 minutes/week.  Senior classes = 120 minutes.

It’s not particularly surprising that the time allotted to these classes paled in comparison to literacy, English Language Arts, and math.  While I don’t have those numbers handy (remember, I was a lowly itinerant), I recall time spent on both literacy AND numeracy being at least 60 minutes per day.  Now, keep in mind these numbers are from a timetable from 8 years ago and it has been 5 years since I’ve taught in an elementary school so perhaps things have changed (I’m assuming an elementary teacher can correct me if I’m wrong – Adam Williams, I’m looking at you).  In the high school realm, on first glance, it appears as though the discrepancy between the value placed on courses evens out a little bit (see the list below).

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The above table shows the number of credits one needs in order to graduate in Saskatchewan.  As you can see, English Language Arts is the dominant course.  

When you dig deeper, however, the amount of time spent on ELA (‘readin/’ritin’) is potentially worrisome (note: I say this as a high school ELA teacher).  You’re going to have a real tough time graduating from high school if you struggle to read/write which many of our disadvantaged/at-risk students do (many of whom don’t speak English as their first language).  To make matters worse, the Sask Party’s failure to prioritize education has resulted in increased class sizes, fewer educational assistants (even though Premier Moe attempted to address this recently) and less learning resource time.  Those that are struggling are going to have an even harder time getting the support they require.  Next semester I have 30 students registered in my ELA 9 class and 32 students in my ELA A10 course (which includes two modified students enrolled in ELA 11). It goes without saying that these numbers are far too high and it makes both the teacher’s and student’s job much more difficult.

Next up.  Our Indigenous students.  Years could be spent discussing the litany of ways in which the system has failed them over the years.  The fact that a wide achievement gap continues to exist between Indigenous students and non-Indigenous students is further evidence of this (something that government’s fail to point out when trumpeting the “good work being done to increase graduation rates”).  Unfortunately, recent budget decisions make it unlikely that this gap will shrink anytime soon. The Sask Party’s canceling of the NORTEP program combined other budgetary decisions such as requiring guidance counselors and Indigenous advocates to also teach classes (thus limiting the amount of time they can provide support to students) have further diminished support for our Indigenous students.  This, combined with the aforementioned emphasis on the 4 Rs is proof that the status-quo remains acceptable to those in power. Remember, the second premise highlighted in this week’s lecture was that “power sustains, protects and reproduces itself”.

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The way our education system is currently structured around fails to meet the needs of all of our students.  Instead, we ask our at-risk students (“square pegs” for the purposes of this metaphor) to adapt to a system that is not conducive to their achievement.

While this post has largely been doom and gloom, all hope is not lost.  Even though counselor time has been reduced, there has been an increase in programs available to at-risk students.  Drumming groups, ACT, and GSAs can be found throughout schools in Saskatchewan. Cree is being taught at some community schools in Regina while Regina Public also hosts a feast and round dance each year.  In addition, there has been an increased emphasis placed on Social Justice issues in the ELA curriculum (hopefully the senior Social Sciences curriculums which haven’t been updated since 1994 will follow suit).  Also, this is my 12th year in Regina Public and I’ve had a female principal for 9 of those years. Good work is being done and some progress is legitimately being made.  

All of this having been said, it is obvious that, while our schools are doing good work, more needs to be done (I haven’t even mentioned the digital divide but for the sake of time and space, I’ll save that one for one of my classmates).  The fact that many Canadians believe there to be an “Indian Problem” shows just how far we still have to go and just how much work our education system has to do in an attempt to overturn decades of colonial attitudes. 

People care.  But whether the people that have the power to help make change truly possible care remains to be seen. 

Status-quo.  Rinse and repeat.